Blasts From The Past

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The I M Marsh campus of Liverpool John Moores University has a long history. The college was founded in 1900 by Irené Mabel Marsh under the name of Liverpool Physical Training College. From small beginnings the college grew over the years and by the 1960s IM Marsh College of Physical Education, as it was then known, was one of the pre-eminent and influential women’s PE colleges in the country with many international hockey players found among its student and lecturers. So, who was Irené Mabel Marsh and what is the origin story of this successful institution?

 

Irené Mabel Marsh

Born in December 1875 Irené Mabel was the third child of a Liverpool family of ten: four boys and six girls. Just like her other siblings, Irené was talented at games, gymnastics and swimming.

In 1892 Irené signed up for a two-year course at Southport Physical Training College. Here she proved to be an outstanding student and gained several awards including a first-class Certificate for Hygiene and Physiology along with the Diploma of the Southport Physical Training College. She was also successful in gaining a Diploma from the National Health Society and National Physical Recreation Society.

 

Irene M Marsh
 

Irené Mabel Marsh.

Courtesy of Liverpool John Moore's University Archive.

 

In January 1887 Irené Marsh was appointed by Doctor Alexander Alexander to the post of Physical Director for Ladies to run classes for women and children at the YMCA in Liverpool. She was a visionary woman who understood the importance of physical education and physical exercise for everyone. Her vision was not limited to women and girls; she began to develop classes for boys up to the age of 10, as well as for the deaf and blind. She was ahead of her time with her inclusive ideals and as the numbers attending her classes increased, there was a need for more teachers. Where was she to get them?

Irené decided she would train teachers herself! Her first trainee teachers were Salomé, her sister, and a friend Muriel Peet who worked as her assistants. This was the genesis of her recognising the need to train her own teachers and it was the start of what would go on to become the I M Marsh College of Physical Education.

 

Small Beginnings

In 1900 Irené obtained her first property at 110 Bedford Street. With a training base she could call her own, her vision was now a reality and the Liverpool Physical Training College was founded. The second cohort of students were enrolled with Irené Marsh as the full-time member of staff with support of Salomé and Muriel, her first cohort trainees.

 

College
 

Liverpool Physical Training College at 110 Bedford Street.

Courtesy of Liverpool John Moore's University Archive.

 

The course ran for two years. The first known prospectus in 1908 had an amazing range of subjects: anatomy; ambulance; remedial gymnastics; physiology; massage; pathology; hygiene; drilling; sick nursing; educational gymnastics; cricket; badminton; hockey; hand ball; tennis; rounders; lacrosse; goal-ball; fencing; rowing; basket-ball; vigoro (a cross between cricket and tennis); children's games; swimming, lifesaving; and dancing. Facilities for games and swimming were hired away from Bedford Street.

There was a long waiting list for teachers in local schools so Irené Marsh increased the number of students to her college to help fill the gaps. As the number of students grew, she knew she had to find a facility where all the students could be accommodated, and the work undertaken in one place. In 1920 Barkhill was bought with its house and extensive grassed playing area. In January 1921 the first set of ‘freshers’ to Barkhill College arrived. By 1922, the College numbers had increased and could now support 14 hockey teams! (photo of the 1922 1st X). A remarkable level of success in such a short time.

 

Barkhill
 

Above: Barkhill College, Liverpool Physical Training College, 1920.

Below: The College's First XI hockey team, 1922.

Courtesy of Liverpool John Moore's University Archive.

 
1st XI Team IMAG1110 01

 

In 1929 a three-year course started at the College. Some students were already taking a third year but up until then it had not been compulsory. Irené Marsh not only appointed esteemed experts in their field, but her college also produced renowned games players and dancers. She had such faith in the training provided by the college that she often appointed her own students to the staff. Two such student appointments were Kath Henderson who completed her training in 1902, and Mabel Bryant who completed her training in 1908. Kath Henderson was an England international hockey player (1904-11) and Mabel Bryant was also an England international (1901-29) as well as an international cricketer.

 

Kath Henderson      Mabel Bryant
     

Kath Henderson (left) and Mabel Bryant (right), alumni and later staff of I M Marsh College of Physical Education.

Courtesy of Liverpool John Moore's University Archive.

 

Other significant student-to-staff appointments were May Hilton Royle who completed her training in 1906. She became a renowned physiotherapist who co-founded the School of Physiotherapy, and Ancoat's Hospital in Manchester where she was Principal for 23 years. Margaret Einert completed her training in 1910, and was appointed to the staff in 1915 – her expertise was dance. By 1917 she was asked to take the Liverpool Education Committee classes for teachers of rhythmic dancing. She travelled abroad giving lectures and classes, wrote a book and several papers, and in 1939 set up the Margaret Einert Rhythmic Dance School in Liverpool.

 

The Next Era

On 3 April 1938 Irené Marsh died after a seizure aged just 63. She was a dynamic personality who had built a training college that attracted students from all corners of the world. When students left, they took up appointments as PE teachers in establishments worldwide.

April 1939 saw Miss Marie Travers Crabbe appointed Principal. Like her predecessor she appointed staff of very high quality for every subject. The college was able to attract staff who were international sport players, world leaders in dance and gymnastics and scholars for the academic subjects. Her appointments included two international hockey players, Duffy Moffett and Maureen Short and one international lacrosse player, B J Lewis. Marie Crabbe kept the college open throughout the Second World War despite Liverpool being a target for extensive bombing. Barkhill did not escape bomb damage and staff and students helped put out fires.

 

Maureen Short England 1965
 

I M Marsh past student Maureen Short representing England at hockey in 1965.

The Hockey Museum.

 

Following lengthy negotiations, Lancashire County Council took over the control of the private Liverpool Physical Training College in August 1947. This move brought the benefit of grants to students for tuition and accommodation and opened the way for a wider demographic group of students. The Governors remained keen to retain the original ethos of the college and gained permission to rename it after its founder. It became I M Marsh College of Physical Education.

From 1964 onwards, the courses continued to develop with the dance/drama course instituted, the introduction of the Diploma in Outdoor Education, a one year in-service course for practising teachers as well as a Diploma in Drama in Education. In September 1975 a three-year Bachelor of Education degree leading for the first time to a four-year honours degree was offered to all students who entered with two 'A' levels and satisfied Liverpool University entrance qualifications. The college continued to attract the most talented sports women and international hockey stars such as Marie Birtwistle, Maggie Souyave, Linda Carr, Mary Eckersall and Sheila Morrow were all graduates from the college.

 

Maggie Souyave 03 courtesy of Maggie Souyave
 

I M Marsh past student and England and Great Britain hockey player and manager Maggie Souyave.

Courtesy of Maggie Souyave.

 

University Status

The late part of the twentieth century saw many changes to governance at the college. In April 1977 the college linked with Liverpool Polytechnic and then five years later in it formally became part of Polytechnic. Now degrees could be awarded by the Council for National Academic Awards. Further changes came in 1992 as a result of the Further and Higher Education Act. During this period Higher Education in Britain underwent major changes and new degree courses were introduced designed to better support the needs of modern society. Liverpool Polytechnic became part of Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU).

For most of this period the physical education courses had been delivered at the original Barkhill site, but in recent years more and more courses were delivered from the city centre campus and there were moves to sell off the site. In 2011 LJMU announced its intention to sell the Barkhill Campus. However, after pressure from many quarters, the University reversed this decision in 2022 with plans for the campus to become a high-class recreation centre for staff, students and the community. A fitting future for such an historic site.

In October 2021 LJMU granted an honorary Bachelor of Education Degree to all past students of I M Marsh, who gained their Certificate in Education prior to 1980. This was a real acknowledgment of the contributions made to teaching, teacher training, physical education, education and many other and varied professions taken up by its alumni across the world.

 

By Sheila Wigmore
Former student at I M Marsh 1964-1967
Emeritus Professor of Physical Education, Sheffield Hallam University

Sheila Wigmore and former colleague, Professor Patricia A Shenton OBE, have recently published a book on the history of I M Marsh CPE. For more information on this publication and how to obtain a copy visit: I M Marsh College of Physical Education Book - LJMU Alumni Shop

In August 2022, The Hockey Museum (THM) featured a piece about Wembley Head Groundsman Don Gallacher and his son Colin’s efforts to document his father’s memories in a new book. Don oversaw the Wembley pitch between 1974 and 1985 when hockey crowds were at their highest. The vibrancy and the excited, piercing noise – too loud to hear the umpire’s whistle! – are vivid recollections from everyone who attended or played. We reflected on how The Hockey Museum (THM) had attempted – but ultimately failed – to track down a Wembley groundsman when writing our own chronicle of Wembley, The Magic of Wembley, only to be contacted by Colin through our public enquiries service several years later.

We are grateful to Colin for making a significant donation to THM in recognition of our small support.

(Re)visit the preceding part of the following story by clicking here: Unearthing a Groundsman’s Special Memories of Wembley Stadium (hockeymuseum.net)

 

A Reflection by Colin Gallacher on his Publishing Journey

Whilst compiling my late father’s memoir about the time he was the Head Groundsman at the ‘old’ Wembley Stadium (1974-1985), I stumbled across The Hockey Museum and in particular the marvellous book The Magic of Wembley in early 2022 – an absolute ‘fluke’.

It was back in the 1980s when I persuaded my dad to drop his other writings and pursue one about his time at Wembley Stadium. Despite my early intervention, it took another 35 years to get from ‘written’ or ‘typed’ manuscript to a printed book – the ultimate objective.

Unfortunately, the barriers were considerable; not least finding the time to produce in legible form, but also the prohibitive cost of printing or distributing a book at the time and licensing the use of photographs essential to his story. Yet in very recent years the ability for the average person to publish and the cost of images, even those owned by newspapers, have become manageable; as has my having the time to put in the work (although I didn’t appreciate just how much time).

It was Ian Gallacher, my cousin and collaborator in this current effort, who forwarded a link to The Hockey Museum’s website because he thought it may be interesting. As usual he was right: very interesting and I was able to purchase the marvellous book The Magic of Wembley. How marvellous? It was and remains so for me. Apart from being a really good read, it features the memories of former hockey players and others. Many of these coincided with my dad’s writings which proved so reassuring. The book reflects on the grandeur of the stadium and the Wembley ‘effect’ being so special for everyone who attended a sporting occasion, be it players, coaching staff or fans; and how the wonderfully noisy hockey spectators (mainly schoolgirls) muted the umpires’ whistles so that they had to be supported by additional officials using klaxons.

 

1957 Wembley
 
Cartoon humorously documenting an umpire's struggle to be heard over the crowd at Wembley.
From Hockey Field magazine 1957.

 

Both books refer to the original Wembley Stadium, which to some was considered as ‘The Cathedral of Football’ – the ultimate goal for players in most sports and much more. It was a truly iconic building in its day with its Twin Towers as recognisable as the Eiffel Tower or the Taj Mahal. Unlike those buildings, the original Wembley Stadium no longer exists other than in the memories of those that had the good fortune to play on the ‘sacred turf’, watch a special match or perhaps attend a rock concert with audiences approaching 100,000. Publishing books such as these help to ensure the longevity of those memories.

I’m truly impressed with The Hockey Museum’s website and I am grateful for the Museum for allowing me the use of photos for my book. I am especially thankful to the volunteer authors of The Magic of Wembley – it has been an inspiration as well as a most enjoyable reference to when women’s hockey was an annual event at the old Wembley Stadium.

Many thanks,
Colin Gallacher

 

Purchase the Books

Purchase Colin’s book, a memoire of his father Don Gallacher, Get Off My PitchGet Off My Pitch by Don Gallacher

Purchase The Magic of Wembley, the first publication from The Hockey Museum: Purchase The Magic of Wembley Book (hockeymuseum.net)

 

Get Off My Pitch book cover      MoW A1 poster PRESS single 1

27 September 2022 is the centenary of Australia and New Zealand men’s first international matches.

It is unusual for two nations to have their first international matches occur simultaneously, but the geographical distance of Australia and New Zealand from other hockey-playing nations of that era led to this exceptional first fixture.

The match was played at Palmerston North Sportsground (now Fitzherbert Park in New Zealand) with the home nation winning 5-4.

One of the umpires was Sidney Holland who later became Prime Minister of New Zealand (1949-1957).

 

New Zealand men vs Australia 1922
 
Above: the first New Zealand men's hockey team (1922).
Below: the first Australian men's hockey team (1922).
 
Australia men vs New Zealand 1922

 

 

The match report from the Manawatu Standard

A fair attendance, estimated at 1,500, enthusiastically greeted both teams. “As the Australians appeared it broke forth into hearty applause, which throughout was strictly impartial.”

New Zealand made an excellent start, Auckland centre forward Eric Watts opening the scoring, with Heaphy and Bell adding two further goals to take New Zealand to a 3-0 half-time lead.

Seaman opened Australia’s account shortly after half-time, but Heaphy scored again to extend New Zealand’s lead to 4-1. Australia were not done, however, Craig and Seaman scored in quick succession to take their team to within one goal of New Zealand. Watts then extended New Zealand’s lead to 5-3 before Seaman scored his third goal, the match finishing in a 5-4 win to New Zealand.

New Zealand were somewhat fortunate to win, the correspondent’s report asserting Heaphy was clearly off-side when he scored New Zealand’s fourth goal.

Following the match both teams were entertained “at a complimentary dinner” which “concluded at a late hour”. They, along with 80 couples, were then invited to a dance at Zealandia Hall on Broadway, which was decorated in green and gold in their honour. Shields with green and black halves, with the letter “A” on the green side and a silver fern on the black side adorned the walls. “Directly above were representations of the Kangaroo and Kiwi with crossed hockey sticks.”

 

* Research by Geoff Watson, Associate Professor in History at Massey University, University of New Zealand.

 

More Information

pdfClick the PDF icon to the right to discover more about Australia and New Zealand's first international hockey match.

Courtesy of the Australian hockey historian John Sanders.

At a recent event at Great Comp House & Gardens in Kent, we presented Sue Chandler (former Great Britain (GB) Captain with 25 appearances) with her GB honours cap alongside a group of ladies from Sevenoaks and Teddington hockey clubs who were re-enacting hockey as it was played in the early 1900s.

 

Sue Chandler cap presentation 22082022      Boaters at Great Comp
     

Left: Sue Chandler receives her Great Britain honours cap from The Hockey Museum Vice President Katie Dodd.
Right: Wimbledon and Sevenoaks Hockey Club members pose in boater hats with researcher Frances Thompson prior to their early-twentieth-century hockey re-enactment.

 

We’ll reveal more on this re-enactment in due course, but it got us thinking: English hockey does not have a long-standing tradition of wearing caps or having any sort of headwear as part of its uniform (kit), for either men or women – as is the case in other sports. Neither has English hockey awarded honours caps to international players, though some caps exist in recognition of county or territorial representation.

 

The Evolution of Honours Caps | The Hockey Museum

 

Yet photographs and artwork exist from the late 1800s and early 1900s which indicate that it was not uncommon for women’s hockey teams to wear boaters, berets or other headwear as part of early hockey uniform.

 

French team in Copenhagen 1922 from Hilda Light scrapbook
 
The France international women's team wearing berets at a tournament in Copenhagen in 1922.

 

An engraving, published in 1894, after a painting by the artist Lucien Davis, would also suggest that it might have been common for ladies to actually play in their hats.

 

A Ladies Hockey Club at Play c1894
 
A Ladies' Hockey Club at Play, c.1894; engraving after an artwork by Lucien Davis.

 

Marjorie Pollard, in her book Fifty Years of Women's Hockey, wrote that in 1896 "the distinguishing dress to be worn by the All England XI was agreed upon as follows: white canvas shirts and caps; the badge, the Rose of England, on the pocket of shirt and on the peak of cap; cardinal serge [woollen] shirt and band; white silk (long); sailor hat (for travelling?)".

This lends itself to the interpretation that in 1896 a peaked cap was for playing in and a sailor hat was worn for travel between matches. This is supported by a photograph of the England women’s team of 1896 and a report of the match in The Queen':

 

"Though the day was not particularly bright, the scene was very pretty, colour being lent to it by the costumes of the players.
The Irish ladies wore light green blouse, and skirts of a darker shade of the same colour. The visitors [England] were attired in white bodices and caps, and red skirts."
The Queen', 14 March 1896.

 

England women 1896 vs Ireland
 
The England international women's team which played Ireland in 1896.

 

During the Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the All England Women’s Hockey Association (AEWHA) in 1895 it was proposed that "No player shall wear hat pins, or sailor or other hard-brimmed hat [during matches]", but this was defeated and only passed several years later, possibly in 1898. Even back then player safety was obviously an issue and it appears that playing in hats of any description quickly disappeared.

 

Hockey Headwear: Its Contemporary Relevance

Fast forward 120 years and The Hockey Museum and GB Hockey are now presenting honours caps to all GB hockey players, past and present. These caps have a very traditional look and the heritage appeal of this design has struck a chord with the recipients.

 

“The GB honours cap is absolutely beautiful. I had no idea what it might look like, but it is beyond my wildest expectations.”
Val Robinson, writing in 2021.

 

Val Robinson cap award

 

While English hockey (and Great Britain international hockey) may not have had an illustrious hat-wearing tradition, there are hockey-playing nations and cultures where headwear is more common and deeply rooted: the Sikh turban and the Muslim hijab for example.

Recognising this, England Hockey this week announced revised regulations on playing kit for the 2022-2023 season. When published these will provide clarity on what kit can be worn during hockey matches including, for the first time, making explicit reference to head coverings for players such as turbans and hijabs. These regulations will ban the use of metal fastenings and pins to secure any headwear – a link back to those original 1890s AEWHA regulation banning hat pins!

 

Creating Flexibility so People Feel Comfortable to Play (New Regulations on Playing Kit) | England Hockey

Harvey J Wood at 1908 Olympics
 
Harvey Wood, England men's 1908 Olympic gold medal-winning goalkeeper.

 

The Hockey Museum volunteer James Ormandy spent a large part of 2019 researching hockey in Yorkshire to produce an article “When Hull Got Hooked on Hockey” for the Playing Pasts website.

When Hull Got Hooked on Hockey | Playingpasts.co.uk

During his research James came across an article on the East Riding Museum website on Harvey Jesse Wood from Beverley, the British goalkeeper from the 1908 Olympic Games. It was part of a panel from the museum’s exhibition Sporting Beverley.

 

Harvey Jesse Wood Sporting Beverley
 

The Harvey Jesse Wood text panel from the Sporting Beverley exhibition at East Riding Museum.

Click the image to link to the full exhibition PDF.

 

Just a few weeks later James purchased a copy of a photograph from the February 1908 edition of The Bystander magazine of “H. J. Wood, the Midlands goalkeeper” in action against the South territorial team.

 

HJ Wood The Bystander
 
 Photograph captioned "H. J. Wood" from The Bystander magazine, February 1908.

 

With his article on Harvey Wood published on Playing Pasts, all seemed fine – that is until James recently visited The Hockey Museum. Exploring deeper amongst the Museum’s library and archive, James came across a feature article on Harvey Wood (no middle initial given) in the 1 May 1908 edition of Hockey magazine. It claimed that England goalkeeper was born in Staffordshire not Yorkshire as previously believed. This made sense as he played for West Bromwich HC, Staffordshire county and the Midlands.

 

Hockey magazine 1908 Harvey Wood
 
The article in Hockey magazine (May 1908) which records Harvey Wood's birthplace:
"Born in Staffordshire, Mr Wood is only 23 years of age ..."

 

Using the British Newspaper Archive, James set about trying to resolve the issue. Many early reports had Harvey listed on England team sheets as H. J. Wood, but later ones were either H. Wood or by the time of the Olympic Games in 1908, H. I. Wood.

 

Harvey Wood 01 BNA
 
Harvey Wood 02 BNA
 
Extracts from the British Newspaper Archive.

 

During the Olympic Games the England goalkeeper was listed always as H.I. Wood. The H.I. Woods outnumbered the H.J. Wood references by a factor of 4-1 in the 1908 hockey reports.

 

Harvey Wood 03 BNA

 

James set about trying to find H.I. Wood using online genealogy service Findmypast. Only one result fitted the timeline: Harvey Icke Wood who was baptised in late 1884 in West Bromwich, but there were no other references. In the 1901 census James found a Harvey Wood, son of Peter Wood owner of P&S Wood Ltd, the second-generation brickmakers whose father George (Harvey’s grandfather) had left £35,000 to his sons when he died in 1884. His sons followed George into the business. Searching on “Peter Wood” rather than “Harvey Icke” bizarrely brought up Harvey Icke Wood in the 1911 census working as an Insurance Agent. This rather put to question the efficiency of the search engines!

 

Harvey Icke Wood 1911 census

 

What do we know about Harvey Wood?

He played three seasons for West Bromwich HC two in the 2nd XI before replacing England international Lancelot Augustus Gurney in the 1st XI goal. West Bromwich would go unbeaten in the 1907-08 season. Wood played for Staffordshire and the Midlands having reportedly outstanding performances leading to his debut for England against Ireland in March 1908. He played in all the home internationals and the Olympic Games earning seven caps but seemingly never played again.

 

Harvey Jesse Wood or Harvey Icke Wood?

Across the internet, Wiki sites and Olympic history sites list Harvey Jesse Wood as the 1908 Olympic goalkeeper, but the vast majority reference the text from the 2016 East Riding Museum website and offer no other evidence.

Harvey Jesse Wood was born in Beverley, son of the local butcher who was a notable local sportsman playing cricket and rugby and appears in both the 1901 and 1911 censuses as a railway clerk living in Beverley. Even though both Beverley and West Bromwich railway stations were part of the London & Northern Railway Company, it seems highly unlikely he ever moved to West Bromwich.

Harvey Icke Wood was born in West Bromwich into a brickmaking dynasty that his grandfather George (1808-1880) had created. Seven of his nine sons became brickmakers including Harvey’s father Peter. The family could be classed as rich industrialists, part of the upper-middle class as were the members of the England team of 1908. His father’s company P&S Wood Ltd owned the Pump House Brickworks whose trademark was the star of David. They exported Staffordshire blue bricks across Europe with, ironically, Germany being one of their biggest export markets in the 1900s. Harvey visited Canada in 1912 and married in 1916 worked as a bookkeeper living in Bath until his death 1963.

Further research by The Hockey Museum’s Curator Shane Smith and Archivist Marcus Wardle revealed that the Hockey Association’s (HA) England selection book had Wood listed as H. I. Wood and not H. J. Wood. In the book, the I and J appear similar enough to cause a possible confusion, but distinct enough to be identifiably different. Note the J in “J. Y. Robinson” (John Yate Robinson) which loops below the line of the other letters, and the I in “A. I. Draper” (Arnold Inman Draper) which sits neatly on the line with no lower loop.

 

Hockey Association selection book
 

 The Hockey Association selection book of England international players.

From The Hockey Museum collection.

 

So, our evidence:

  • The article in Hockey lists Wood’s birthplace as Staffordshire.
  • The majority of the newspaper team lists record an H. I. Wood (not H. J. Wood).
  • Handwriting evidence in the Hockey Association selection book records him as H. I. Wood in 1908; and
  • He played for West Bromwich HC in the Midlands.


Given all this, it would seem that sports historians to date have credited the wrong Harvey Wood. Once again, the redress of history began in The Hockey Museum’s archive by one of our research volunteers.

Get Off My Pitch book cover

 

The Hockey Museum (THM) regularly receives interesting enquires from the public and sometimes even an exchange of information. Back in April 2022 there was one such enquiry from Colin Gallacher. His father Don was Head Groundsman at Wembley Stadium between 1975 and 1985. Colin is planning to publish his father’s memoires in a book called Get Off My Pitch and he was seeking permission to use some of the photographs from THM’s own publication The Magic of Wembley. In particular, Colin sought those of Her Majesty the Queen’s visit to Wembley in 1981 – clearly a proud and stirring memory for Don.

Her Majesty Attends the Women's Hockey at Wembley Stadium in 1981 | hockeymuseum.net

We were happy to share these photographs in exchange for a donation. They were taken by Pat Ward, past Editor of Hockey Field magazine, who kindly donated her collection (and their copyright) to the Museum.

There was a bit of sadness that we had not found Colin sooner. His father’s insights would certainly have been included in The Magic of Wembley. When writing the book, THM had tried (even advertising in the papers) but ultimately failed to trace one of the grounds team. It is always good to receive new information even if it is past the time it was really needed. It all helps to better tell hockey’s heritage stories and expand our knowledge of items in THM collection.

Katie Dodd explains:

“What a shame we didn't find Colin earlier. Nan Williams [co-author of The Magic of Wembley with Christabel Russell Vick] and I did try to get details of any former staff at the old Wembley Stadium to hear their stories, but we were not successful. Neither Wembley Stadium nor the Football Association seemed to have any interest in the history of the old Stadium ... apart from football! The most help we had was from the local Wembley newspaper who published an article about us trying to find anyone who had worked at Wembley. Sadly, we got no responses.”

 

Harrow Observer 2014
 
The Hockey Museum's article in the Harrow Observer, 8 May 2014.

 

However, better late than never. There is now overlap between THM’s past work and Don Gallacher’s memories of the England women’s hockey team playing at Wembley. Sometimes you just need to wait a few years for things to fall into place.

Long-time THM volunteer Christabel (Chris) Russell Vick met virtually with Colin and they had a wonderful time remembering what Wembley Stadium meant to them as part of their family histories, albeit from completely different angles. Chris in the posh seats – her mother Mary was President of the All England Women’s Hockey Association (AEWHA) – and Colin pitch side assisting a cameraman during the FA Cup final.

Colin has promised us a copy of his forthcoming book Get Off My Pitch (pictured) for the Museum’s library, which we will be very happy to receive as it provides a unique perspective on an illustrious era in hockey’s past.

The Magic of Wembley book – minus Head Groundsman Don – remains available to purchase for the bargain price of £10.00 (plus postage costs). Please enquire using the contact form on THM website: Contact Us | hockeymuseum.net

International touring has a long and distinguished sporting history. Within British hockey, Australasia has been an attractive location to tour to as far back as the early twentieth century. An England women’s side travelled to Australia and New Zealand in 1914, in an era before UK women had the vote (but Australia and New Zealand had enjoyed women's emancipation for some years). England toured to Australia again in 1927 prior to an Anglo-Scottish women’s tour to Australia in 1937. There were International Federation of Women’s Hockey Association (IFWHA) World Conferences & Tournaments in Sydney, Australia in 1956 and Auckland, New Zealand in 1971, which were approached with something akin to a touring mentality rather than formal tournaments. Great Britain men enjoyed an Australia tour in 1966.

Yet touring internationally is not exclusively the domain of international teams. Following in the footsteps of these early pioneers, more recent decades have seen school hockey teams embracing transcontinental touring.

 

Buford School’s Mixed Hockey Tour

August 2022 marks the 25th anniversary of Burford School in Oxfordshire's first mixed hockey tour to Australia in 1997.

Between 5-22 August 1997, twenty 16-year-olds and three members of staff made the 12,000-mile journey. It included visits to Perth in Western Australia, the Central Coast in New South Wales, and the iconic city of Sydney.

 

IMG 20220617 130941      IMG 20220617 131017
     
Burford School mixed hockey team in Australia, 1997.
Left: taking in the Perth Skyline.
Right: Sydney Harbour Bridge.
Below: Touring the Central Coast, New South Wales.
 
IMG 20220617 131107

 

The tour party experienced many great sight-seeing opportunities, but the highlight of the trip on the hockey field was undoubtedly the 3-1 victory over Sydney Co Ed Grammar School at Holmbush, the hockey venue for the Olympic Games in 2000.

 

IMG 20220526 WA0012
 
Burford School and Sydney Co Ed Grammar School share
a group photograph after their match at Holmbush, 15 August 1997.

 

Theirs was an ambitious and trail-blazing tour. According to Monica Pickersgill, President of the All England Women's Hockey Association (AEWHA), it was “the first school mixed hockey tour we [the AEWHA] have had the pleasure of supporting”.

Toby Douglas of Edwin Doran Sports Tours, the company who organised the trip and is the market leader in school sports tours, states that as far back as 1974 (when the company was founded) he could find no reference to school mixed hockey tours to anywhere outside the UK.

This was the first British school mixed hockey tour outside of the UK ever recorded – unless you know differently.

 

IMG 20220619 170525
 
Letter from Monica Pickersgill, President of the AEWHA.

 

Hockey at Burford School

Hockey has been played at Burford School since the 1930s, a near century-long tradition of girls, boys and mixed teams.

Mixed hockey was the vehicle for three major overseas tours to Australia in 1997, Canada in 2000 and Australia and New Zealand in 2003. It played on three visits to Burford's twin town, Potenza Pocena in Italy, as part of cultural visits in the late 2000s. These also included a full orchestra and choir!

 

Ernest Hartley
 
Ernest Hartley, the most famous Old Burfordian.

 

Many former Burford School pupils played county hockey, but the most famous Old Burfordian is Ernest Hartley, who played hockey for The Isis Club in Oxford and for England. Ernest earned the first of 17 caps for England (three as Captain) in 1922. In an amusing coincidence, one of the matches he captained was, of all places, in Perth – though this was Perth in Scotland (for Scotland vs England), not Australia! The hope is that Ernest's family will receive a posthumous cap at some time in the not too far distant future.

As of August 2022, the groundwork is being completed for an all-weather pitch at the school, specifically for hockey!

 

By Bill Williams
Bill was Head of Physical Education and Sport at Burford School between 1987-2019. He organised the 1997 Australia tour alongside his wife Mandy, who led girls Physical Education at the school.

Mike Smith, Hon. Curator and President of The Hockey Museum (THM), describes the process of uncovering hockey’s history as being like a jigsaw puzzle:

“Putting together the history of hockey is like doing a jigsaw puzzle where many pieces are missing. Ultimately, we hope to find enough pieces to make the picture recognisable.”

Visitors to the museum may be under the impression that THM already has all the answers – that couldn’t be further from the truth. Staff and volunteers are undertaking a constant process of investigation and discovery that requires creativity, attention to detail, and often, consultation with the wider hockey community. THM’s recent delve into umpiring history is a perfect example.

 

F S Brabham whistles 1920s      F S Brabham 1908 referee brooch
     
Three engraved silver whistles and a referee's brooch from the 1908 Olympic Games.
These items previously belonged to international umpire F S Brabham.

 

We recently acquired three silver whistles engraved with dates from the 1920s. These belonged to F S Brabham, a relatively unknown umpire. The engraved information on the whistles opened up new avenues to explore, revealing Brabham’s involvement in an Ireland vs Scotland match in 1923, an Ireland vs Wales match in 1924 and a France vs England match in 1925. A further whistle was awarded for umpiring the Easter Hockey Tournaments in Norwich in 1925 and 1926.

 

1925 FRA v ENG team 2331925 The Times newspaper
 
1925 FRA v ENG 641925 The Times newspaper
 
Reports on the France vs England international hockey match in 1925 from The Times newspaper.
Neither report mentions the umpires!

 

Having searched through THM’s partially verified statistical records of England matches as well as the British Newspaper Archive (see above), we were unable to find details of the umpires for that England vs France match in 1925. Undaunted, we reached out to our friends at the Irish Hockey Archives to see if they knew of Brabham. Drawing on their records and with help from the Irish Times newspaper, they confirmed Brabham’s presence as an umpire at the Irish matches. This helped prove the provenance of the whistles.

 

Ire v scot 03031923 F S Brabham one of the seated umpires
 

The Irish hockey team from the Ireland vs Scotland international match played on 3 March 1923.
Umpire F S Brabham is one of the two jacketed men seated at each end of the middle row.

Image courtesy of the Irish Hockey Archive.

 

 

Cross-referencing Sources And The Whistles' Impact On The Hockey Museum’s Statistical Research

Following the rollout of Great Britain (GB) honours caps by THM (in partnership with the Hockey Internationals’ Club and GB Hockey), we have increasingly been asked why there has been no recognition of international umpires. The implication being: why should the players get all the fun/credit?

The GB caps were the culmination of a meticulous six-year, volunteer-led research project by THM to create the statistics to determine definitive match and player records for GB hockey players back to 1920. Without definitive records, it would have been impossible to provide an athlete’s unique player number. To do this it was vital to know every GB hockey match ever played in history and every player who featured in them. Miss one player or one match and the numbering goes awry! The same is true for appointed umpires. THM must research and assemble complete and indisputable records for every British umpire and the matches they officiated, or we cannot be sure that the awarding of umpire numbers and appointment/appearance totals will be correct.

Our search to discover F S Brabham – we still don’t know his given names – and prove his officiation at international matches, demonstrates some of the inconsistencies within historical sources. You might think that paper records would be the most helpful kind of source, but this is not necessarily the case. Different sources prioritise different pieces of information. The edition of Hockey World magazine from the 27 March 1925, tells us that the Easter event engraved onto one of the whistles was Norwich’s inaugural hockey tournament. Yet Norwich is not even mentioned in the following year’s issue and there is no mention of umpires in either.

Similarly, with the England player records (which our volunteers are currently collating), whilst the England players are recorded, the umpires are not, making it necessary to find additional confirmatory sources. Records can often result in more questions than answers and sometimes physical objects, such as these whistles, can prove invaluable for research. The whistles are a highly unusual source for discovering appointed international umpires, but they are symbolic of the variety of sources THM needs to engage with before it can create definitive umpiring records and even consider umpires’ caps.

THM’s project to research and collate umpiring and technical official statistics is being led by volunteer Steve Catton, himself an active international official. This research will become an asset to THM and prove fruitful for future projects. The challenge makes these discoveries all the more rewarding, resulting in the occasional whistle while we work!

 

Umpiring And Technical Official Statistics – Can You Help?

Steve is keen to hear from active or retired GB and England international umpires and officials who can provide accurate records of their appointments, which will assist with building up this side of THM’s valuable data resource. Steve can be contacted at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Following the Platinum Jubilee last weekend to celebrate Her Majesty the Queen’s record breaking 70-year reign, we look back on what is arguably her most iconic hockey moment: the visit to Wembley Stadium in 1981.

The Queen made an appearance at the England vs Wales women’s international match at Wembley, much to the delight of the crowd of 62,000 schoolgirls eager to catch a glimpse of Her Majesty. There was a lunch before the match that was attended by many former players and officials. Before meeting the players, the Queen toured the stadium in an open-top Range Rover alongside All England Women’s Hockey Association (AEWHA) President Mary Russell Vick and Welsh Women's Hockey Association President Ceri O’Donnell. An exciting moment for them both and a wonderful way to acknowledge the sport of hockey, its players and fans.

 

1981 queen tour      1981 Wembley Maggie Souyave introduces Jan Bartlett to the Queen image credit The Hockey Museum
     
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II attends during the England vs Wales
women's international hockey match at Wembley Stadium in 1981.

 

Memories of the Queen’s Visit to Wembley Stadium

Pat Ward, former Editor of Hockey Field magazine, recalled how her interest in photography led to an exciting opportunity to photograph the Queen at Wembley Stadium – a memory that has had a lasting impact on her life and career.

Our interview with Pat Ward, which can be found among our oral histories on THM’s website, reveals her fond memories of this day and the nerves she felt from the pressure of the job and of being in the presence of the Queen. The atmosphere was magical. The crowd sang the National Anthem at the end of the match, much to the delight and surprise of Her Majesty, who later mentioned how she felt extremely touched by the love shown to her.

 

Mary RV and Queen Elizabeth II
 

All England Women's Hockey Association (AEWHA) President, Mary Russell Vick with the Queen at Wembley.
Photographs from the Pat Ward collection held at The Hockey Museum.

 

Oral History Interview: Patricia (Pat) Ward | The Hockey Museum

Maggie Souyave, England captain on the day the Queen attended: Oral History Interview: Margaret (Maggie) Souyave | The Hockey Museum

 

In The Hockey Museum’s self-published book, The Magic of Wembley, Christabel Russell Vick (daughter of AEWHA President Mary) recalls how “the thrill of singing God Save the Queen when you can see the Queen was very special. A once-in-a-lifetime memory.” She also remembers her mother coming back from a meeting in late 1980 where she declared, “I have not yet had a refusal from Her Majesty, and I am getting worried that she is going to accept!” As Patron the Queen was invited to Wembley every year.

 

Patron 19 Nov 1979
 

A letter from Buckingham Palace confirming the Queen's patrongage of the AEWHA (dated 19 November 1979).
From the Mary Russell Vick collection held at The Hockey Museum.

 

Approval of Programme 28 Jan 1981
 

A letter from Sandringham approving the programme for the day the Queen was to visit Wembley (dated 28 January 1981).
From the Mary Russell Vick collection held at The Hockey Museum.

 

Despite the upheaval that the visit caused (such as Wembley Stadium having to re-paint the banqueting hall as the Queen was coming to lunch) the Royal visit provided a very memorable day for every attendee. Katie Dodd who played in the match remembers the excitement of meeting the Queen and recalled that the team probably spent more time practising curtsies than short corners!

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II’s reign has touched many people, but for hockey players past and present, this moment was a defining point in the history of hockey which, considering the size of the Wembley crowd and the age of our Monarch, is unlikely to be matched on such a scale ever again.

 

Thank you latter from Buckingham Palace page 1 23 March 1981      Thank you letter from Buckingham Palace page 2 23 March 1981
     

The thank you letter to Mary Russell Vick sent from Buckingham Palace on behalf of the Queen (dated 23 March 1981).
From the Mary Russell Vick collection held at The Hockey Museum.

 

Joyce Hatton Vera Cox and Frances Heron Maxwell colourised
 

Joyce Hatton, Vera Cox (wearing her AEWHA blazer) and Frances Heron-Maxwell.
This photograph was colourised for Frances Thompson's talk at The Hockey Museum.

 

Last Wednesday 4 May, Frances Thompson travelled from Australia to The Hockey Museum (THM) for a rather personal research visit, and we asked her to give a talk.

Frances presented on the work she has been doing to piece together the fascinating life of her great grand aunt, Vera Cox. Vera played for Atalanta HC, Kent, the East and then England between 1908 and 1912, captaining the team in 1912. Her international hockey career was brought to an early conclusion following a knee injury sustained in the 1912 fixture against Ireland but she continued to play club hockey and went on to coach, select players for representative honours and umpire. Vera umpired at international level until the early 1930s. She was also involved in hockey administration and then in support of her friend, Frances Heron Maxwell the early feminist and suffragette, went on to be one of the driving forces behind the setting up of the England Women’s Cricket Association and the development of international women’s cricket.

To find out more about Mrs Frances Heron Maxwell, click on the following link: Feminist Icon Frances Heron-Maxwell | GreatBritishLife.co.uk

 

 

England women c1910
 
England women's hockey team c.1910. Vera Cox is seated middle row far right.

 

Frances’ talk gave a fascinating insight not only into Vera’s many early achievements but also Vera the person – one of ten siblings who wrote constantly to each other. These letters still exist and are held in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Frances has been researching them and the talk covered the period up until the beginning of World War 1.

Hockey Shorts will cover details from the talk including a video of the presentation itself in a later edition. Meanwhile, you can listen to Frances's podcast 100 Years of Cox; series 3, episode 17 uncovers Vera's hockey life through her letters.

 

Subscribe to the Mailing List | hockeymuseum.net

100 Years of Cox S3E17: Vera - The Joys of Hockey | Apple Podcasts

 

Prior to her talk, Frances Thompson spent the day at THM in Woking pouring over copies of Hockey Field magazine and other items that our Archivist Marcus Wardle had unearthed in our collections management database. Among these were four large scrapbooks containing photographs, programmes and other memorabilia relating to Kent and England women’s hockey from the early 1900s. While we knew we had these books, our records revealed nothing about how they came to be created or by whom. Amazingly, as soon as Frances looked at them, she recognised the handwriting as Vera’s – having read so many of her letters, the style was so distinctive! These four scrapbooks have now been identified as Vera’s record of her hockey career from 1906 through to 1912 – such an amazing find for all of us. Frances was thrilled. As Mike Smith, THM’s Hon. Curator reflected later, discovering the link between the scrapbooks and Vera is what makes all the work at THM worthwhile – positioning more pieces in the jigsaw puzzle of hockey’s heritage to create a better image of our sport’s fascinating past.

 

Vera Cox scrapbook 1911
 
One of the four scrapbooks from the Pat Ward collection held at The Hockey Museum in Woking, now identified as having been created by Vera Cox.

A total of 581 players (men and women) have represented Great Britain (GB) over the years. Many of these players have enjoyed illustrious international careers with seven men and 13 women having exceeded 100 appearances – yet this piece is about those players who only made one single appearance.

To achieve international player status takes a huge amount of physical and mental hard work and dedication. To become a GB international normally means progression through their ‘Home Country’ national team, so it is fair to assume that the players would be quite well known to the selectors by the time they reached consideration for GB. Selection by a panel of appointed ‘selectors’ was the traditional method of choosing players for county, regional and international duty during much of the twentieth century. This familiarity might imply that players could expect at least a few games to show their mettle.

Each case will be slightly different, but through our statistical research The Hockey Museum (THM) has discovered that 35 men and 18 women have played representative hockey for GB just once. It would be fair to assume that most of these 53 individuals would be a little disappointed at only being selected once. However, there is one concrete exception!

 

The GB & Ireland tour to South Africa and Kenya, 1951

In 1951 a GB & Ireland team visited South Africa for a Five Test Series. They flew home via Nairobi in Kenya having accepted an invitation to play one match against Kenya (& East Africa). The very enjoyable South Africa tour was also very gruelling. By the time the party reach Nairobi they were somewhat depleted. This was aggravated by a couple of players returning home separately meaning that when they reached Nairobi, GB were struggling to find 11 fit players – in 1951 there was no such thing as substitutes, so, if they could scrape them together, 11 would be sufficient. Significantly, GB only had four forwards and no centre forward. These were the days of ‘positional hockey’ rather than the fluid systems employed today.

 

Cartoon 1951 GB tour of South Africa
 

 A cartoon commenting on the GB & Ireland team tour to South Africa in 1951.

It proved to be a gruelling trip with many players having picked up injuries by the time
the team arrived in Nairobi to play Kenya on their journey home.

 

It transpired that a young Brit had recently moved to Nairobi; a very competent hockey player called Peter Johnson. He was a recent Cambridge University ‘Blue’ in an era when many Oxford University and Cambridge University ‘Blues’ progressed rapidly into international hockey. Peter had played in the Varsity matches of 1946, 1947 and 1951 – a rare and lengthy span which must confirm his competence as a hockey player. On 20 September 1951, Peter was called upon to play for GB in a narrow 3-2 loss for the visitors at Nairobi’s City Park Stadium. In doing so he earned his one and only international cap, albeit in very unusual circumstances.

We can be certain that Peter Johnson would have been delighted to have played in just one international match, unlike many other one-cap internationals who might have hoped for more appearances.

 

GB Ireland team cloth badge 1951
 

Great Britain & Ireland team cloth blazer badge from the 1951 South Africa tour,
previously owned by goalkeeper Sir Derek Day.

Peter Johnson would not have owned one of these badges as he wasn't part of the original
touring team. However, we may still be able to present him with a GB honours cap.

 

Can You Help?

We have no further information on Peter Johnson. If he is still alive he would be nearly 100 years old, but he or his family are entitled to received his GB honours cap. We would very much like to make this presentation, so unique is Peter’s story.

Please help with any contact details for Peter or his family. Contact The Hockey Museum using the website contact form: Contact Us (hockeymuseum.net)

Blasts From The Past: An Introduction

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Old Creightonians Archive Arrives With A Suprise

Old Creightonians Archive Arrives With A Suprise

Mike Smith, Curator of THM (left) discusses theOld Creightonians HC archive with Simon Lawton-Smith (right). At The Hockey Museum (THM) we receive at least one collection each week, but not many have a twist in the story like this one. A recent visit by Simon Lawton-Smith brought us the club records...

Terrific Trophies

Terrific Trophies

Over the past couple of years, a considerable amount of material, including a large collection of trophies, has come to THM from Cannock HC. It was rescued from the former National Hockey Stadium in Milton Keynes by Laurie Alcock, affectionately known as 'Mr Cannock'. Had Laurie not saved it, the cabinets and artefacts...

The Work Of Preserving Hockey Heritage: Saving The AEWHA Scrapbook

The Work Of Preserving Hockey Heritage: Saving The AEWHA Scrapbook

The All England Women’s Hockey Association (AEWHA) Collection is looked after at the University of Bath by their Archivist, Lizzie Richmond. The collection contains many unique and irreplaceable items documenting the evolution of women’s hockey in the UK. Two items, the Hockey Jottings scrapbook and the very first minute book...

A Vintage Christmas Present? From India To The London Stage

A Vintage Christmas Present? From India To The London Stage

Photo from Daisy Pulls It Off, showing at the Park Theatre, Finsbury Park, London.Photo courtesy of Tomas Turpie. One of our eagle-eyed supporters spotted this wonderful image taken by Tomas Turpie in The Times newspaper last week. It was from a review of Daisy Pulls It Off, a play that...

An Early Easter Hockey Tour

An Early Easter Hockey Tour

Programme (cover) of The Newport Centrals Hockey Club Fourth Annual Tour, Season 1913-14   Easter hockey tours and festivals have been very popular for many years, probably more so before the league systems were set up in the 1960s and ‘70s. A recent find, hidden amongst our postcard collection, gives...

Bullets Stopped Play

Bullets Stopped Play

Yesterday one of our volunteers was going through a collection and found this newspaper cutting from Thanet International Hockey Festival, 1964. Anyone who has been to Thanet will know that three coats is a mininum and not just because of the flying bullets.

Hockey Played In Antarctica

Hockey Played In Antarctica

"First game of Hockey played on ice near Ship", from The Atlantic magazine, 2013.   The Hockey Museum recently heard of hockey being played in a most unlikely location: on the sea ice in Antarctica. We were contacted by an Antarctic history enthusiast who pointed out that the British Film...

Bringing History To Life With Juan Calzado

Bringing History To Life With Juan Calzado

The Hockey Museum (THM) was very proud to receive a visit recently (28 March 2017) from Juan Calzado, former President of the International Hockey Federation (FIH), European Hockey Federation (EHF) and Real Club de Polo, Barcelona. We were honoured that on a holiday visit to London with family he took...

An Update On The English Cup

An Update On The English Cup

In 2015 The Hockey Museum received an enquiry from Alan Lancaster. He sent two photographs, one a team photograph, which Alan thought was Newhey Ladies’ Hockey team. One of the photographs featured his mother Doreen Howles and her two sisters, Vera and June holding a cup which was believed to...

Three Antique Silver Cups From The Royal Navy HA

Does the existence of three antique silver cups with the Royal Navy HA have a ‘black lining’? The Royal Navy Hockey Association is the proud owner of three silver cups that date back to the 1900 period. They were used for different competitions between ships and units that made up...

The Grand International Match

The Grand International Match

During the First World War, the War Office often used sporting references to try to persuade sportsmen to enlist and an amusing notice in the book Ireland’s Call (by Stephen Walker) recently caught our eye.

The Liberty Bodice

The Liberty Bodice

We recently came across an interesting advertisement in The Hockey Field magazine from 6 January 1916: "Physical Instructors and Games Mistresses are recommended to try the Liberty Bodice. It obviates the necessity for corsets and gives absolute freedom of movement to growing girls. It is ideal wear for all kinds...

Hockey And Football: A Comparison

Hockey And Football: A Comparison

We recently acquired copies of a rare early sports magazine dating from 1906 – The Cricketer, The Hockey and Football Player. It was only published for just over a year taking in two cricket and one winter season. The magazines contain a number of interesting articles that make comment on...

An Illegal Hockey Stick

An Illegal Hockey Stick

New collections are, thankfully, arriving weekly and many of them create great interest when received. The hockey stick illustrated in the below images was a real example of this. It came complete with a copy of an advertisement from Hockey Magazine of 4 September 1908 extolling the virtues of the...

The Jet-propelled Hockey Stick That Didn't Take Off!

The Jet-propelled Hockey Stick That Didn't Take Off!

In response to the many enquiries that we receive at The Hockey Museum our volunteers are constantly trawling through hockey publications in search of information. These searches often take twice as long as expected because we find unrelated pieces that are very interesting. One such piece was discovered recently in...

Hockey On The Sand At Minehead

Hockey On The Sand At Minehead

Hockey players on the beach at Minehead with North Hill behind. Photograph by Alfred Vowles.  Unlike most of today's youngsters who learn to play on artificial pitches, Nan Williams, a former England international and volunteer at The Hockey Museum (THM), started her playing career on the sands of Minehead on the...

Have You Heard Of The English Cup?

Have You Heard Of The English Cup?

I have recently joined the many volunteers working with the The Hockey Museum. As I live in the Manchester area I am quite away from all the action, however I have recently been forwarded a couple of enquires from the Museum in relation to matters from the North! My first...

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